U.S. v. Perez — Sixth Amendment Right to Counsel when Tribe Appoints Lay Advocate Defender

Here are the materials in U.S. v. Perez:



The interesting excerpt from the district court’s denial of the motion is here:

After a careful review of the parties’ arguments, the facts, and relevant caselaw, the court adopts the magistrate judge’s recommendation and finds that Perez’s Sixth Amendment right to counsel was not violated. While Perez is correct that United States v. Red Bird, 287 F.3d 709 (8th Cir. 2002), would likely require this court to find a Sixth Amendment violation if he had been represented by an attorney on his tribal charges, the court agrees with Magistrate Judge Duffy and other judges in the District of South Dakota that Red Bird is distinguishable when it is lay counsel, not an attorney, who represented the defendant in tribal court. Red Bird, 287 F.3d at 716; see also Docket 54, page 25-27; United States v. Tools, CR 07-30109-01-KES, 2008 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 49490 (D.S.D. June 27, 2008); United States v. Killeaney, 2007 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 92763, 2007 WL 4459348, *5-*8 (D.S.D. Dec. 17, 2007) (stating that “[t]here is a clear distinction between licensed legal counsel and lay representation under the Sixth Amendment” and concluding that “the appointment of ‘counsel’ pursuant to the Rosebud Constitution does not in all circumstances cause Sixth Amendment protections to attach” when that “counsel” is lay counsel); United States v. Dupris, 2006 DSD 4, 422 F. Supp. 2d 1061, 1068 (D.S.D. 2006); see also United States v. Whitefeather, 2006 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 17237, 2006 WL 763204, *2 (D. Minn. Mar. 24, 2006). Because Perez’s Sixth Amendment right to counsel had not “attached” as discussed in McNeil, statements made during Agent Cresalia’s conversation with Perez on January 11, 2008, are admissible. Perez’s motion is denied.