New Indian Law Scholarship

Carla Fredericks has published “Operationalizing Free, Prior, and Informed Consent” in the Albany Law Review.

The Oklahoma Law Review has published a student paper, “Closing Time: Removing the State of Oklahoma from Alcohol Regulation in Indian Country.”

Ann Tweedy on Tribal Gun Regulation

Ann Tweedy has published “Indian Tribes and Gun Regulation: Should Tribes Exercise Their Sovereign Rights to Enact Gun Bans or Stand-Your Ground Laws?” (SSRN) in the Albany Law Review.


This essay examines tribal laws relating to guns. It then discusses whether tribes whose values accord with either gun bans or stand-your-ground laws would be well-served to enact such laws. It concludes that enforcement difficulties and related problems make both types of laws very costly and that tribes are likely to be best served by enacting more modest firearm regulations and/or protecting the right to bear arms (without expanding the right to self-defense). The essay also concludes that the risks tribes face in the area of firearms regulation in particular contravene Congress’ intent in enacting the Indian Civil Rights Act.

Fenner on Indian Country in Cyber Space

Ben Fenner of Fredericks Peebles & Morgan, LLP has published “Indian Country in Cyber Space: Bella Hess and Commerce Clause Constraints on Interstate, Mail Order Transactions” in the Albany Law Review.

From the introduction:

When political processes fail, the rule of law prevails or people rise to power. When the political process fails between tribes and the United States, defined as it is by federal statutes and case law, there is no rule of law and, therefore, leaders emerge. So it is that the panoply of tribal leaders is vast and ranges from ordinary men and women in seemingly mundane circumstances to warriors and negotiators who are household names.


The ability of the government to justify the annihilation of whole cultures was, and is today, driven by a perceived lack of resources (a euphemism for greed). And no resource is as scarce today, it seems, as money; few areas of federal Indian law are as contentious as states’ ability to tax and regulate tribal activity. While tribal immunity from state taxation is well-settled, what of state ability to tax Internet transactions originating on reservations? Part II of this Article is an overview of preemption in federal Indian law. Part III looks specifically to taxation and regulation of mail-order transactions. Part IV concludes that tribes may structure online transactions fulfilled on-reservation to preclude state taxation.