Eighth Circuit Affirms Conviction of Non-Enrolled Indian under Major Crimes Act

Here is the opinion in United States v. Stymiest. An excerpt:

Applying the two-part Rogers test, and viewing this evidence in the light most favorable to the jury’s verdict, we conclude that sufficient evidence supports the jury’s finding that Stymiest was an Indian for purposes of this § 1153(a) offense. Without question, he has the requisite Indian blood-his grandfather is an enrolled member and medicine man in a Minnesota Band. By repeatedly submitting to tribal arrests and prosecutions, and by reporting to the IHS clinic he is an Indian, Stymiest held himself out as an Indian and received forms of official tribal recognition. See Lawrence, 51 F.3d at 152 n. 4; Cruz, 554 F.3d at 850; Bruce, 394 F.3d at 1226-27. He also lived and worked on the Rosebud reservation and repeatedly held himself out as a non-member Indian to his Indian girlfriend and in socializing with other Indians. Although not an enrolled member of any tribe, enrollment “is not the only means [of establishing Indian status] nor is it necessarily determinative.” Pemberton, 405 F.3d at 660; seeAntelope, 430 U.S. at 646 n. 7.

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