The Supreme Court reversed the Court of Appeals. Justice Montoya-Lewis wrote the unanimous opinion.
The opinion is here:
It is a long opinion with a lot of history, and information. Friend of the blog Sandy White Hawk is featured extensively. There are important law review articles and social science articles cited.
Importantly for future cases, the Court held “We hold that a court has a ‘reason to know” that a child is an Indian child when any participant in the proceeding indicates that the child has tribal heritage.”
The Indian Law Clinic at MSU represented the Tribes in this case, along with the Center for Indigenous Research and Justice.
(To be clear I am Very Excited about this and it is a Big Deal.)
It took me a while to read this whole opinion and there are a lot of issues. But to start, I’d note that unlike some arguments in another unnamed federal ICWA case (Brackeen, it’s Brackeen), this case is yet another every day example where a state has to prove the best interests of the child standard and the ICWA standard–the ICWA standard didn’t supplant BIOC.
That said, there is some unnecessary Michigan trash talking in this case as the Court happily finds active efforts is more than reasonable efforts, but unhappily choses to adopt a “futility doctrine” for the active efforts finding. The futility “doctrine” for active efforts is a judicially created standard to excuse the state from providing active efforts to the parent.
Another court finds that a temporary guardianship where the parent cannot have the child returned upon demand meets the definition of a foster care placement under ICWA. Unfortunately the court decided not to publish the decision.
The ICWA Appellate Project filed an amicus brief in this case with the Center of Indigenous Research and Justice on behalf of minor mom.
Here. In Division 3.
The MSU Indian Law Clinic and Center for Indigenous Research and Justice filed an amicus brief supporting the application of ICWA and the minor mom (represented by Northwest Justice Project).
Order is here.
This is a great victory by the tribal attorneys who worked on this issue for the past number of years.
All of the ICWA pro hac vice rules are here.
Letter regarding the rule: 18-04-Ltr to Interested Persons.
Comments due by November 29.
Any comment to the rule petition should be filed by November 29, 2018, with the Clerk of Supreme Court, Attention: Deputy Clerk-Rules, P.O. Box 1688, Madison, WI 53701-1688. If possible, email a Microsoft Word version of your response to firstname.lastname@example.org. See comment guidelines at the court’s website at https://www.wicourts.gov/scrules/petitioncomment.htm.
Well, since I did the California post yesterday on this, multiple people from Wisconsin reminded me that we all need to submit supportive comments there. Many thanks to NL for spelling it out in an email so I can just cut and paste it here (ie making it easy for me):
Over in Wisconsin, we have a pending ICWA pro hoc vice rule petition that could use some more supporting comments, especially from adjacent states! You can find the petition here (https://www.wicourts.gov/scrules/1804.htm).
The process for submitting a comment is as follows:
To submit a comment:
I. Submitting a comment to a rules petition
A comment to a pending rule petition shall be submitted in hard copy (include one original and nine copies). The paper copies shall be mailed to the Clerk of the Supreme Court, P.O. Box 1688, Madison, WI 53701.
A person submitting a comment shall e-mail an electronic copy of the comment in MS Word format MS Word to the Office of the Clerk of the Supreme Court at email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org.
II. Contents of comment
The comment shall identify the rule petition to which it relates.
III. Service of comment on petitioner
A copy of the comment shall be forwarded to the petitioner in a timely manner. See the rule petition for the name and contact information of petitioner.
This is so exciting! Kristi Healing, (in-house at Stillaguamish) submitted this pro hac rule change proposal.
Here is the proposed rule in PDF form: WA_Proposed_APR8
Submit comments in support, please!
Unless otherwise noted, all comments should be submitted to the Clerk of the Supreme Court by either U.S. mail or Internet e-mail. Comments may be sent to the following addresses: P.O. Box 40929, Olympia, WA 98504-0929, or email@example.com. Comments submitted by e-mail may not exceed 1500 words.
Our state by state pro hac page is here. I’m also aware of efforts in two other states that are not yet public for comment.
The Wisconsin Court of Appeals affirmed a termination of parental rights decision under ICWA and WICWA using Adoptive Couple v. Baby Girl (finding abandonment/lack of continued custody by non-Indian father).
In only the third Washington Supreme Court case to directly interpret ICWA and the first to interpret WICWA, the Court holds In re Crews (the case that established EIF in Washington) is overturned.
Under our above interpretation of ICWA and WICWA, if a case (1) meets the definition of a “child custody proceeding” and (2) involves an Indian child, both acts shall apply. ICWA and WICWA recognize only two exceptions to coverage–delinquency
proceedings and custody disputes following divorce where one parent retains custody of the Indian child. Our interpretation therefore overrules Crews to the extent that it embraced the existing Indian family exception because it recognizes no additional exceptions to coverage outside of the two expressly stated in ICWA and WICWA.
ICWA and WICWA also apply based on the child’s membership, not the parent’s:
For these reasons, we hold that whether the parent whose rights are being terminated is non-Indian is immaterial to a finding that ICWA and WICWA apply. If the child at issue is an Indian child and that child is involved in a child custody proceeding, ICWA and WICWA shall apply.
Craig Dorsay represented the tribal amicus brief (including oral arguments), and NARF and Indian Law Clinic at MSU Law provided strategy and research support in this case. Previous coverage here.