Indian boarding schools
Native Justice Coalition & Michigan State to Host Panel on Boarding Schools: “Our Stories Heal – Ginoojimomin Apii Dibaajimoyang” on April 6, 2023
DOI: “Secretary Haaland Announces Federal Indian Boarding School Initiative”
Related Secretarial Memo here:
HCN: “The U.S. stole generations of Indigenous children to open the West”
Here, by Nick Estes.
The Atlantic [Family Weekly Newsletter]: “America’s Dark History of Native American Assimilation Schools”
WaPo: “Thousands of Canada’s indigenous children died in church-run boarding schools. Where are they buried?”
The Atlantic Spotlight on Photojournalist Daniella Zalcman’s “Signs of Your Identity”
Link: Erasing Indigenous Heritage by Emily Anne Epstein (Oct. 30, 2016)
For nearly a century, the Canadian government took indigenous Canadians from their families and placed them in church-run boarding schools, forcibly assimilating them to Western culture. Children as young as 2 or 3 years old were taken from their homes, their language extinguished, their culture destroyed. With support from the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting, photographer Daniella Zalcman has been documenting the lingering effects of this trauma for her book, Signs of Your Identity, this year’s winner for the FotoEvidence Book Award.
Fletcher & Singel on the Historical Basis for the Trust Relationship between the US and Indian Children
Fletcher & Singel have posted “Indian Children and the Federal Tribal Trust Relationship” on SSRN.
Here is the abstract:
This article develops the history of the role of Indian children in the formation of the federal-tribal trust relationship and comes as constitutional challenges to the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) are now pending. We conclude the historical record demonstrates the core of the federal-tribal trust relationship is the welfare of Indian children and their relationship to Indian nations. The challenges to ICWA are based on legally and historically false assumptions about federal and state powers in relation to Indian children and the federal government’s trust relationship with Indian children.
Indian children have been a focus of federal Indian affairs at least since the Framing of the Constitution. The Founding Generation initially used Indian children as military and diplomatic pawns, and later undertook a duty of protection to Indian nations and, especially, Indian children. Dozens of Indian treaties memorialize and implement the federal government’s duty to Indian children. Sadly, the United States then catastrophically distorted that duty of protection by deviating from its constitution-based obligations well into the 20th century. It was during this Coercive Period that federal Indian law and policy largely became unmoored from the constitution.
The modern duty of protection, now characterized as a federal general trust relationship, is manifested in federal statutes such as ICWA and various self-determination acts that return self-governance to tribes and acknowledge the United States’ duty of protection to Indian children. The federal duty of protection of internal tribal sovereignty, which has been strongly linked to the welfare of Indian children since the Founding, is now as closely realized as it ever has been throughout American history. In the Self-Determination Era, modern federal laws, including ICWA, constitute a return of federal Indian law and policy to constitutional fidelity.
“Chemawa Indian School unmarked graves”
From aljazeera here.
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