Cert Petition in Seneca Nation Citizen’s Treaty-Based Tax Immunity Claim

Here is the petition in Perkins v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue:

Perkins v. Commissioner Cert Petition

Question presented:

This Court is presented with a question of first impression, as to the taxability of income derived from the sale of sand and gravel, mined from treatyprotected land by an enrolled member of the Seneca Nation of Indians (“Seneca Nation”). Upon the granting of certiorari, the Court will examine the language in two federal treaties, promising not to disturb the “free use and enjoyment” of lands by the Seneca Nation and “their Indian friends residing thereon and united with them,” and protecting these lands “from all taxes” for any purpose. Treaty with the Six Nations (“Canandaigua Treaty”), art. III, Nov. 11, 1794, 7 Stat. 45; Treaty with the Senecas (“1842 Treaty”), art. 9th, May 20, 1842, 7 Stat. 590. Congress has explicitly stated the Internal Revenue Code “shall be applied to any taxpayer with due regard to any treaty obligation of the United States which applies to such taxpayer.” 26 U.S.C.A. § 894 (a)(1)(West).

The question presented is whether the United States Court of Appeals and the United States Tax Court have given “due regards” to the treaty obligations of the United States by finding these treaties had no textual support for an exemption from federal income tax applicable to an enrolled Seneca member whose income is derived from the
lands of the Seneca Nation. Perkins v. Comm’r, 970 F.3d 148, 162-67 (2d. Cir. 2020).

Lower court materials here.

UPDATE (5/1/21):

Starna Amicus Brief

Commissioner BIO

Reply

Federal Court Allows Some Tobacco Business Claims in Dispute between Sac and Fox, Seneca, and Susanville Rancheria Companies

Here are the materials so far in Allegheny Capital Enterprises LLC v. Cox (W.D. N.Y.):

8 Amended Complaint

17-8 Motion to Dismiss

17-5 Arbitration Decision

21 Response

22 Reply

23 DCT Order

An excerpt:

This is a diversity action commenced by a corporate entity affiliated with the Sac and Fox of Oklahoma Tribe (doing business in the Seneca Nation in New York) and a partnership doing business in the Seneca Nation. They claim that Defendants, officers of affiliated corporations of the Susanville Indian Rancheria (a Native tribe in California, also referred to as “SIR”), made misrepresentations to Plaintiffs that led to Plaintiffs entering into the tobacco manufacturing and distribution contracts with one of the affiliated corporations. Defendants represented that they had the authority to waive tribal sovereign immunity for the affiliate corporation and that the affiliate in fact waived that immunity. After an alleged breach of these contracts, Plaintiffs lodged claims against one of the affiliate corporations, but the corporation successfully asserted that it did not waive its tribal sovereign immunity. Plaintiffs then commenced this action against the officers; they did not name the corporation as a Defendant.

Before this Court is Defendants’ Motion to Dismiss (Docket No. 17) the Amended Complaint on sovereign immunity, jurisdictional, and pleading grounds. For the reasons stated herein, Defendants’ Motion to Dismiss is granted in part (dismissing claims against Defendants Stacy Dixon and Jolene Robles for lack of personal jurisdiction), denied in part (denying other grounds asserted). After resolution of this motion, Plaintiffs retain claims against Defendant Gretchen Cox.

Federal Court Allows Seneca Trespass Action against New York Thruway to Proceed, Allows Interlocutory Appeal

Here are the materials in Seneca Nation v. Cuomo (W.D. N.Y.):

41 Seneca Supplemental Brief

44 New York Supplemental Brief

47 Seneca Supplemental Brief

48 DCT Order

Earlier briefs here.

Second Circuit Holds Treaties Do Not Provide Tax Immunity for Individual Indian-Owned Business on Fee Lands

Here is the opinion in Perkins v. Commissioner: Opinion

Briefs:

Perkins Brief

Commissioner Brief

Reply

Tax court opinion here.

Related case materials here.

Second Circuit Briefs in Seneca Nation of Indians v. State of New York [gaming dispute arbitration award]

Here:

Seneca Brief

New York Brief

Reply

Lower court materials here.

Federal Court Sets Seneca Member’s Tax Case for Trial

Here are the materials in Perkins v. United States (W.D.N.Y.):

60-1 US Motion for Summary J

62 Perkins Motion for Summary J

71 US Response

72 Perkins Response

77 US Reply

78 Motion for Leave to File Amicus Brief

78-1 Seneca Nation Amicus Brief

79 Perkins Reply

80 US Motion to Strike Amicus Brief

84 Magistrate Report

85 US Objection

86 Perkins Objection

90 US Response

91 Perkins Response

92 US Reply

96 Perkins Supplemental Brief

99 US Response to 96

100 DCT Order

Parallel Tax Court materials here.

Federal Court Rejects Seneca Challenge to Arbitrators’ Decision

Here are the materials in Seneca Nation of Indians v. State of New York (W.D. N.Y.):

9-2-cross-petition.pdf

10-seneca-reply.pdf

12-ny-reply.pdf

14-dct-order.pdf

Prior post, including petition and arbitrators’ opinions, here.

Seneca Nation Petition to Vacate Arbitration Award Favoring State of New York on Revenue Sharing

Here are the materials in Seneca Nation of Indians v. State of New York (W.D. N.Y.):

1-1 Motion to Vacate

2-3 Final Award

2-4 Partial Final Award

2-5 Washburn Dissent

Federal Court Rejects Motions to Dismiss New York Suit against Native Wholesale Supply & Grand River Enterprises Six Nations

Here are the materials in State of New York v. Grand River Enterprises Six Nations LTD (W.D. N.Y.):

76 Second Amended Complaint

79-3 Native Wholesale Supply MTD

81-1 Grand River Enterprises Six Nations MTD

84 NY Response to 81-1 [Stay Motion]

88 NWS Reply in Support of stay

89 GRE Reply in Support of Stay Motion

92 DCT Order Granting Stay Motion

93 NY Opposition to MTD

95-2 NWS Reply in Support of MTD

96 GRE Reply in Support of MTD

97 Magistrate Report100 NY Objections

102 NWS Response to Objections

103 NY Reply

110 DCT Order Sustaining Objections